Author - Spektrum Culture

Adenium obesum

Adenium_multiflorumAdenium obesum is grown as a houseplant in temperate regions. Numerous hybrids have been developed. Adeniums are appreciated for their colorful flowers, but also for their unusual, thick caudices. They can be grown for many years in a pot and are commonly used for bonsai. Because seed-grown plants are not genetically identical to the mother plant, desirable varieties are commonly propagated by grafting. Genetically identical plants can also be propagated by cutting. However, cutting-grown plants do not tend to develop a desirable thick caudex as quickly as seed-grown plants. The sap of Adenium boehmianum, A. multiflorum, and A. obesum contains toxic cardiac glycosides and is used as arrow poison throughout Africa for hunting large game.

Deforestation – plant tissue culture the solution

RevegetationDeforestation and the excessive amounts of urbanization have destroyed many natural habitats for plant life all around the world. These are habitats that existed for thousands of years but are now almost extinct. If mankind every wants to fix this problem then they have a few options. One option is to simply grow back the plant life that was destroyed by mankind. However, this will take a very long time and the vegetation won’t likely be the same as it once was. This is why plant tissue culture is such an interesting technique that could greatly help in restoring this vegetation. Micropropagation is a type of biotechnology that involves manipulating biological systems of plant life in order to restore the vegetation of lands that were degraded from human beings. MicropropagationMicropropagation opens up a world of opportunities for growing back plant life because it allows scientists to manipulate and possibly re-engineer the original plant cells to make them stronger. After all, the degraded lands that once held plant life are possibly contaminated and so it will be tough to grow plants in soil that are not so nutrient rich. But with micropropagation, the plants will be made to grow well and prosper in degraded lands like this. This soil infertility problem is fixed by applying nitrogen-fixing bacteria to the plants, which is known as rhizobium. This will help non-leguminous plants survive in soil that has few nutrients. There have already been over 100 million diverse plants that have been grown using this methodology. GMO RiceA lack of nutrients is only one challenge in the process of tissue culture or micropropagation. The other hurdle is figuring out a way for the plants to survive in a land that has abiotic stresses such as aluminum toxicity, acidity, and salinity. Genetic engineering is the only way to make plants resistant to these stresses normally found on degraded lands. Some plant species have been found to be tolerant of abiotic stresses on their own. In vitro selection of plants, it has been found that the most tolerant plants to these stresses are rice, tomato, wheat, and barley. But as far as synthetic crops grow, there is one called “triticale” which is a man-made hybrid of rye and wheat. This has been found to be suitable for growth in acidic and dry soils. Therefore, revegetation can certainly happen in the future, especially in croplands that we depend on for food.
Ornamental PLants

Ornamental Plants

Bouquet of RosesOrnamental plants, have you ever walked into a building and saw a nice bouquet of roses? Anytime you see beautiful flowers used as decorations, these are considered to be ornamental plants. These are not plants that you use for growing crops and harvesting food from them. These are merely plants you use for decorative purposes because they are generally colorful and possibly even smell nice as well. There are many different kinds of ornamental plants that grow all over the world. The normal procedure for obtaining an ornamental plant from somewhere else would be to import the seeds or the flowers themselves. But thanks to plant tissue culture, horticulturalists can grow these ornamental plants by using the cells of these plants. All they would need is one piece of plant tissue from the original plant and they could use the plant cells from the tissue to grow new plants. Since ornamental plants are popular amongst individual consumers, this opens up a whole new marketplace and business opportunity for horticulturalists and flower shop owners. Plant Tissue Culture FlaskIn vitro micropropagation is how ornamental plants are produced. This method allows horticulturists to produce lots of ornamental plants in a short amount of time. Not only that, the cells of these ornamental plants can be genetically engineered to be even more beautiful. Imagine being able to make rosebuds twice or even three times their average size, and then duplicating this plant over and over again. Florists all around the world would make top dollar on them. This, in turn, will improve the economy and enhance the romance between couples who give each other ornamental plants as gifts. Best of all, you will see more commercial buildings with beautiful exotic flowers because they will be so much easier to obtain. BambooBigger species of plants, like bamboo, are used as an alternative source of wood for a number of construction projects that involve flooring, siding, and roofing. Bamboo is extremely tough and even more durable than hardwood. The only reason bamboo is not a more common material is because they only produce seeds about every 80 years. This makes them extremely expensive to purchase as material for your projects. However, micropropagation will be able to regenerate bamboo without depending on the seeds. If enough bamboo can be created then people won’t have to be dependent on tree wood anymore. This, in turn, will limit the amount of deforestation and increase the amount of conservation land.
Bio Renewable Energies

Bio Renewable Energies

Bio EthanolThere is no secret that we have a short supply of fossil fuels left in this world. Sooner or later, we are not going to have any fossil fuels left to power our cars and homes. That is why we are going to need to switch to bio-renewable energies or else we won’t have anything to provide power to our appliances and machines. Bio-renewable Energy also called biomass energy, is basically energy that is derived from organic matter. This organic matter could be any biological source that comes from nature like wood, manure, straw, sugarcane, and plants. Usually wood is the most popular choice for biomass energy because it produces a great amount of power. However, there is only so much wood left on the earth and it takes decades for recently planted trees to grow to maturity. That is why the new alternative source for bio-renewable energies is planting life. Tissue Culture for BiofuelThe biotechnology of plant tissue culture allows horticulturists to duplicate any type of plant life they want using its cells. But what is really special about this is they can create any number of plants that they want at alarming rates. This means an unlimited energy supply can be generated for any machine or appliance that is built with biotechnology. If humans can successfully switch to this technology then our dependence on fossil fuels will cease to exist. Then greenhouse gas emissions will be greatly reduced. The interesting thing is biomass produces an equal amount of carbon dioxide as the traditional fossil fuels. However, if more plants are produced through micropropagation then the plants will absorb the carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and produce oxygen for us to breathe. Since plants grow incredibly faster than trees, the world can now have an abundance of both renewable energy and oxygen. Ethanol RefineryThe plants grown for the purposes of bio-renewable energy are called biomass feedstocks. Usually, the fastest growing plants and trees will be placed in these feedstocks and then distributed to biofuel dealers. One fast growing plant, in particular, that is being focused on the most for bio-renewable energy is agave, which is a perennial plant. It is currently being used as a bioethanol source and for bio jet fuel. These plants do not require much fertilizer or water, and consistently absorb carbon dioxide throughout the night. Best of all, every hectare of agave can produce about 551 tons of biomass. So there is definitely a lot of interest in cloning this plant in order to sustain heavy demand for biofuel across the globe.